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We were discussing the concept of laminar and turbulent flowReynolds experimentfrictional loss in pipes, derivation of expression for loss of head due to friction in pipesco-efficient of friction in terms of shear stressbasics of shear stress in turbulent flow,  minor head losses in pipe flow and also the  concept of hydraulic gradient and total energy line, in the subject of fluid mechanics, in our recent posts. 

Now we will go ahead to see the basic concept and working of syphon, in the subject of fluid mechanics, with the help of this post. 

Flow through Syphon 

Syphon is basically defined as a long pipe which is basically used to transfer liquid from a reservoir at a higher elevation to another reservoir at a lower level when the two reservoirs are separated by a hill or high level ground. 

Let us consider that we have two reservoirs i.e. A and B separated by a hill as displayed here in following figure. A tube i.e. syphon is connected with reservoir A and reservoir B. Point C which will be at the highest of the syphon will be termed as summit. 

Flow through the syphon will be only possible if pressure at the point C is below than the atmospheric pressure. Pressure at point C will be less than atmospheric pressure because point C is above the free surface of the water in the tank A. This difference in pressure will cause the flow of liquid through the syphon. 

Theoretically pressure at point C may be reduced to -10.3 m of water, but in actual practice this pressure will be -7.6 m of water. 

Application of Syphon 

Syphon is basically used in following cases. 
  1. To transport water from one reservoir to another reservoir separated by a hill or ridge. 
  2. To take out the liquid from a tank, which is not having any outlet. 
  3. To empty a channel not provided with any outlet sluice. 

Further we will go ahead to find out the flow through pipes in series or flow through compound pipes, in the subject of fluid mechanics, with the help of our next post. 

Do you have any suggestions? Please write in comment box. 


Fluid mechanics, By R. K. Bansal 
Image courtesy: Google  

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