Recent Updates

PROVE THAT INTERNAL ENERGY IS A PROPERTY OF THE SYSTEM

We were discussing various basic concepts of thermodynamics such as thermal energy reservoir in thermodynamics in our recent post. We have also discussed the concept of specific heat and enthalpy in the field of thermal engineering.

Today we will prove that energy is a point function and also a property of the system.

System energy is a point function and a property of the system, let us prove this statement

Before going ahead, we will just brief here the concept of first law of thermodynamics. As we have already discussed that first law of thermodynamics deals with the law of conservation of energy and according to law of conservation of energy, energy can’t be created or destroyed but also it could be converted from one form of energy to another form of energy.

We can also say that energy will always be conserved. Heat and work, these are two different forms of energy. If heat energy is provided to the system by the surrounding then system may provide the work energy to the surrounding and similarly if work is being done upon the system then system may deliver the energy in terms of heat to the surrounding.

Hence, this is the basic concept of first law of thermodynamics. Now we will see here the detailed explanation behind the statement that energy as property of the system and as point function too. After that, in our next post, we will see first law of thermodynamics for an open system or control volume.

Let us assume that we have one system which is undergoing a change of state from initial state 1 to another state 2 via following the path A as shown in following figure. System is returning to initial state i.e. state 1 from state 2 via following the path B. Here, we can say that system is undergoing in a cycle 1-2-1 as displayed in figure.
Let us recall the “first law of thermodynamics for a system undergoing a change of state” and apply for path A, where system is changing its state from state 1 to state 2. We will have following equation
QA- WA= ∆EA
Similarly, we will have following equation when system is changing its state from state 2 to state 1 via following the path B.
QB- WB= ∆EB
We have already seen that system is undergoing in a cycle 1-2-1 as displayed in above figure. Hence, we will use the concept of “first law of thermodynamics for a system undergoing a cycle. Let us see the equation for system which constitutes a cycle 1-2-1 and we will have following equation.
WA+WB= QA+QB
WB- QB = QA- WA
- (QB- WB) = QA- WA
- (∆EB) = ∆EA
Let us assume that system is returning to initial state 1 from state 2 via following the path C, in that case we will go ahead similarly as we have gone above and finally we will have following equation
- (∆EC) = ∆EA
Now if we will look the end result for first case where system is returning to initial state by following the path B and of second case where system is returning to initial state by following the path C, what we will secure here that change in system energy is same in both cases and it will not depend over the path followed by the system to return to its initial state.

Therefore we can conclude that system energy will have some definite magnitude for each state of the system and it will not depend over the path followed by the system and hence energy will be considered as a point function and also a property of the system.

We will see another topic in our next post i.e. What is internal energy in thermodynamics?

Do you have suggestions? Please write in comment box

Reference:

Engineering thermodynamics by P.K. Nag
Image courtesy: Google

Also read

93 comments:



  1. I'm after the opposite: I want to override whatever the author of the PDF set so each PDF opens in single page view. Preferences don't force a PDF to open in single page view. Any suggestions?home buyers

    ReplyDelete
  2. Not just mexico.. look tricities Washington... man gets in fight in jokers club follows the guy home kills him.. only 7 years.. 7 freaking years.. the justice system worldwide is disgusting.real estate investor

    ReplyDelete
  3. You have an extraordinary feeling of composing I should state. Your post has those actualities which are not available from anyplace else. It's my unassuming solicitation to u please continue composing such exceptional articles.Apartamentos en Venta

    ReplyDelete
  4. It is so sad that a foreign company owned some property in the us. There has no declaration about this land and if the land registry records was not there, people may not have know about this fact.Kampong Java Road Tender

    ReplyDelete
  5. Not just mexico.. look tricities Washington... man gets in fight in jokers club follows the guy home kills him.. only 7 years.. 7 freaking years.. the justice system worldwide is disgusting.Villas for rent in Dubai

    ReplyDelete
  6. I really appreciate the kind of topics you post here. Thanks for sharing us a great information that is actually helpful. Good day!Furnace Repair Fayetteville NC

    ReplyDelete
  7. It is so sad that a foreign company owned some property in the us. There has no declaration about this land and if the land registry records was not there, people may not have know about this fact.raeford nc home inspection

    ReplyDelete
  8. That's so funny, Indie! Hubby and I went on a mushroom photo-frenzy ourselves this weekend. We've had so much rain, the things are popping up everywhere! Some really pretty ones, too. Nice shots!commercial locksmith jacksonville

    ReplyDelete
  9. I think that’s a really good way to do that. Dropping everything and going freelance is difficult – really difficult – even for the most talented people. I wouldn’t want to do it, and I have no question of my capabilities. It sounds like yo’re making the smart decision. I wish you good luck.professional carpet cleaning fayetteville nc

    ReplyDelete
  10. I really appreciate the kind of topics you post here. Thanks for sharing us a great information that is actually helpful. Good day.Agen Domino Kiu

    ReplyDelete

  11. Nice Post and thanx for sharing This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. This is very nice one and gives indepth information.crowdfunding real estate

    ReplyDelete
  12. I saw this as a child and it took me ages to find out what it was. I'd love to see it again. I even bought the book!Basketball

    ReplyDelete
  13. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. I was exactly searching for. Thanks for such post and please keep it up. Great work.capri leggings

    ReplyDelete
  14. Quite the busy year of Home Improvements! I really like the gold mirror you selected for the lobby. Can you tell me where you got it.swim with dolphins Kona

    ReplyDelete
  15. I really appreciate the kind of topics you post here. Thanks for sharing us a great information that is actually helpful. Good day.Gutters Raleigh NC

    ReplyDelete


  16. Your blog have very good information regarding the real estate, I also have some worth information regarding Property Valuation Services, I think this info will be very helpful for you.raleigh roofing

    ReplyDelete
  17. In real estate there is also the creative investor who using techniques like lease options, owner financing, short sales and wholesaling to make money from real estate with very little cash and no credit. Of course these types of strategies are based on your ability to find motivated sellers.2019 Black Friday Sale Affordable

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thank you so much for writing this article. I saw this programme in 1987 when I was about 9 or 10 years old on British Forces TV in Germany. I couldn't remember the name of the programme or series and only discovered it last week by change on the internet. The ending, as you describe, was absolutely chilling. If memory serves me right, she swings the scythe and it finishes with a chopping sound. Urggh!!residence personne age

    ReplyDelete

  19. Much appreciated such a great amount for this data. I need to tell you I agree on a few of the focuses you make here and others might require some further survey, however I can see your perspective.Fayetteville NC

    ReplyDelete
  20. This can be attributed to the trust level, business reputation as well as relationships build during the offline campaigns. Locksmith Services

    ReplyDelete
  21. Very good information. Lucky me I came across your blog by chance (stumbleupon). I have book marked it for later! fotballdrakter DesmondCa Arsenal Ny Trøje JaysonQue JulieEarn fotballdrakter Kristophe

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hey There. I found your blog using Google. This is a very well written article. I’ll be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely return.real estate listing mls

    ReplyDelete
  23. This can be attributed to the trust level, business reputation as well as relationships build during the offline campaigns.sell my house fast maryland

    ReplyDelete
  24. When do you think this Real Estate market will go back up? Or is it still too early to tell? We are seeing a lot of housing foreclosures in Casselberry Florida. What about you? Would love to get your feedback on this.we buy houses

    ReplyDelete
  25. Thank you for making the honest try to explain this. I feel very strong about it and wish to be informed more. If it’s OK, as you attain extra intensive knowledge, could you thoughts adding more posts similar to this one with more information? It could be extremely helpful and helpful for me and my colleagues.raingo gutters

    ReplyDelete
  26. I liked that you mentioned removing all the items in your living room that may break during a professional carpet cleaning. My sister is thinking about hiring a carpet cleaning company, and we are looking for advice. I will let her know to remove all items from her living room before the process to make sure nothing breaks.vaughan homes for sale

    ReplyDelete

  27. Your web design is as important as a soul is considered for the body. Your web design enables you to create the theme that serves to be the foundation of your website.aurora condos for sale

    ReplyDelete
  28. Blogging in the real estate business is great for expanding your business. Write fresh & valuable content for your blog. Blogs gives you more leads. Share your reviews on social media and that will automatically boost your business. Thanks, for sharing this valuable & informative post with us.seniors residences montreal

    ReplyDelete
  29. I saw this as a child and it took me ages to find out what it was. I'd love to see it again. I even bought the book!homes for sale Murrieta ca

    ReplyDelete
  30. Yeah, technology is going to change the business market of the world as it is getting better and better day by day and helping the business owners to get a big amount of profit form the business. By using technology, they can run the business easily without the difficulties.Houses for sale in Bucks County

    ReplyDelete
  31. The CSOne is web-based maintenance management software designed for maintenance and repair service providers. It is specifically designed to fulfill the requirements for these services and successfully improved productivity of thousands of users around the world homes

    ReplyDelete
  32. Real estate is “property consisting of land and the buildings on it. The guide that you mention in the article choosing the best estate is really helpful for me. I want to thanks for this informative information.Forett Bukit Timah

    ReplyDelete
  33. Property management is a big job even for the most organized association. Daily services such as scheduling maintenance and handling community issues can be time consuming. Property management services help with these processes to allow the board to focus on community decisions. Maintenance not only demands a significant amount of time, it also can be a big expense to cover. parc botannia

    ReplyDelete
  34. The retribution should make a fleeced purchaser feel good however. Nicaraguan correctional facilities exist to rebuff lawbreakers, not restore, and they are Hell on Earth. Sadly however, most issues that can emerge in a land exchange are viewed as common issues by law implementation and must be treated accordingly.best property managers in chennai

    ReplyDelete
  35. Get used to it making up part of the toll of performing the real estate business. You may expend about $350.00 a calendar month for my 4 line ad and that is the commercial range. I'd consider running it 365 days a year to constantly cue everyone that you are a real estate professional and you purchase real estate in their region. parc clematis

    ReplyDelete
  36. For an entertaining article on the difference between types of studies check out this excellent article by Dr John Berardi, a strong advocate of the many benefits of fish oil.bandarq

    ReplyDelete
  37. Thanks for taking the time to discuss that, I feel strongly about this and so really like getting to know more on this kind of field. Do you mind updating your blog post with additional insight? It should be really useful for all of us.keller williams chattanooga

    ReplyDelete
  38. The Avenir is a new launch condominium in Singapore. The Avenir comprising of 2 towers of a 36 storey apartment with a total of 376 units. This condominium is jointly developed by Hong Leong Holdings Limited, Guccoland Limited and Hong Realty Pte Ltd. The Avenir is a freehold condominium located and District 9 sitting on a site area of approximately 129,648 sq ft. Located within the highly coveted District 9 lifestyle enclave of Orchard Road, River Valley, and Robertson Quay. Within 5 minutes’ walk to future Great World MRT (TE15 targeting 2021) and proximity to Somerset MRT (NS23) and Fort Canning MRT (DT20). There will be 69 units of 1 bedroom, 69 units of 2 bedroom, 68 units of 3 bedroom and 101 units of 4 bedroom. Sizes for 1 bedroom is from 527 sq ft, 2 bedroom from 807 sq ft, 3 bedroom from 1141 sq ft and 4 bedroom from 2056 sq ft. Units has a 3.2m high ceiling & top-notch luxury fittings eg. Antonio Lupi, V-Zug, De Dietrich, Hansgrohe, Novacucina. The Avenir was launch on 11 January 2020. A total of 20 units was sold on the 1st day. Prices starts from $1.55m for a 1 bedroom to $8.324M for a 4 bedroom unit.The Avenir Floorplan

    ReplyDelete
  39. Omg I’m beyond happy for you but I’m with Doug hopefully you’ll stay a bit longer at this one. Nicks with you he’s had itchy feet for 15 years but I put my foot down so he bought our first motorhome! So much love sent to you with this message. I’m sure you’ll make it wonderful as you always do.Minivan & VAN Rental Nelspruit

    ReplyDelete
  40. Most property holders like to utilize bigger tiles in family rooms and littler ones in washrooms. The decision is yours
    sonirw

    ReplyDelete
  41. Woah! I'm really loving the template/theme of this website. It's simple, yet effective. A lot of times it's challenging to get that "perfect balance" between user friendliness and appearance. I must say that you've done a superb job with this. Also, the blog loads very fast for me on Internet explorer. Exceptional Blog!BAR SOAP

    ReplyDelete

  42. You made my day! I am very happy and relaxed too that I find this blog. I was looking for the matter discussed in blog post. If you have some more blogs on the material please share those as well.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  43. Teaching your child to swim and urging him to swim frequently can have noteworthy advantages for both his wellbeing and security. Particularly on a hot day, swimming is an approach to keep cool while empowering a solid level of physical and social movement.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  44. You have beaten yourself this time, and I appreciate you and hopping for some more informative posts in future. Thank you for sharing great information to us. Satta king

    ReplyDelete
  45. I value the website article.Really many thanks! Much obliged.Great article post. Keep writing.online education

    ReplyDelete
  46. fantastic points altogether, you simply won a brand new reader. What may you recommend in regards to your publish that you made a few days ago? Any certain? Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  47. I want you to thank for your time of this wonderful read!!! I definately enjoy every little bit of it.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  48. At once the blog might possibly unquestionably pick up famed very from post the general public, as for the meticulous content articles or maybe just necessary review articles. Satta king

    ReplyDelete
  49. I am all that much satisfied with the substance you have said. I needed to thank you for this extraordinary article.sonirw

    ReplyDelete
  50. Really decent post. I just discovered your weblog and needed to say that I have truly delighted in searching your blog entries. After all I'll be subscribing to your food and I trust you compose again soon!jasa pembuatan patung

    ReplyDelete

  51. After they validate their e mail deal with, they then obtain a second electronic mail that gives them a website link to the Short article Remarks page along with the password to unlock it. They can be then no charge to comment around the web site.bat dong san ping land

    ReplyDelete

  52. I am glad to read your blog.your way of working is really awesome and good.your way of working is really great and cool.your blog is really awesome and great.thanks for sharing. We also provide a site profile picture about instagram, please coming soon.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  53. I will still look for a limo company with properly trained chauffeurs who can look after my daughter before and after the prom.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  54. Hiya, I am really glad I have found this info. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossips and internet and this is really annoying. A good site with interesting content, that is what I need. Thank you for keeping this web-site, I will be visiting it. Great!Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  55. I hope that one day I can make it to the West Coast and also tour Victoria, BC. It would be a wonderful trip and memorable adventure to me as I am originally from the states and have life in Ontario for just 13 yrs now. My husband is Canadian. I love to travel and see new sites and this is one of my places I’d love to visit. I have gotten to a few spots here in Ontario but would love to go on a longer adventure even by train would be amazing. Coming by train would be interesting.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  56. Bolton Estate Agents who have been among the leading Bolton Estate Agents for over a decade. If you are in need of professional Estate Agents Bolton, then your search is over.real estate autoresponder

    ReplyDelete
  57. This article is a connecting with bounty of edifying data that is interesting and carefully created. I acclaim your tireless work on this and thank you for this information. You have the stuff to get thought.dubai hills estate

    ReplyDelete
  58. After that it is basic to get pre-endorsed for a home loan from a home loan intermediary or bank, with a confirmation to subsidize your home loan recorded as a hard copy. Numerous individuals much of the time stay away from this progression and decide to pay special mind to land before getting a home loan pre-endorsed.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete

  59. Bolton Estate Agents who have been among the leading Bolton Estate Agents for over a decade. If you are in need of professional Estate Agents Bolton, then your search is over.college essay inspiration

    ReplyDelete
  60. Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting?I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style. Thanks a million and please keep up the effective work. nombre de los dedos de la mano

    ReplyDelete
  61. There are various types of travel bags available in the market these days to fulfill the requirement of all travelers. Have a look at various kinds of travel bags listed below to choose one as per your need. nombre de los dedos de la mano

    ReplyDelete
  62. Costa Blanca Property For Sale Awesome article, it was exceptionally helpful! I simply began in this and I'm becoming more acquainted with it better! Cheers, keep doing awesome!

    ReplyDelete
  63. I was looking for this information from enough time and now I reached your website it's really good content. Thanks for writing such a nice content for us. hope to see you again. bitcoin era review

    ReplyDelete
  64. Hello, I discovered your blog by means of Google while scanning for such kinda educational post and your post looks exceptionally fascinating for me.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  65. Hello, wow! Fantastic guide again, this is the second post that I am reading at this blog. Loved it. I’m not a rental investor lover but got some ideas while reading your this post. Now, sharing your blog with my lovely twitter community.we buy houses florida

    ReplyDelete
  66. You might comment on the order system of the blog. You should chat it's splendid. Your blog audit would swell up your visitors. I was very pleased to find this site.I wanted to thank you for this great read.best florida online real estate school

    ReplyDelete
  67. I have read all the comments and suggestions posted by the visitors for this article are very fine,We will wait for your next article so only.Thanks! NPPM

    ReplyDelete
  68. Our services are available in all cities of Minneapolis and its surroundings. We are having years of experience which enabled our customers and clients to trust our services.el gouna vacation rental

    ReplyDelete
  69. Hello, great material for screenwriters on here! I really love your 8 points theory. I have googled and tried to find where to find the movie script that I know well and that parrells the film I'm trying to write with no luck. Where would I find this?SZ Home Art

    ReplyDelete
  70. I saw this as a child and it took me ages to find out what it was. I'd love to see it again. I even bought the book."
    sleep dentistry"

    ReplyDelete
  71. ’m glad that you talked about looking into closet space when you’re looking at apartments for rent! My wife needs her closet space, and I think that being able to check into that while we’re shopping around for downtown apartments for rent would be a good thing for us! Thanks for the tips.pokies online new zealand

    ReplyDelete
  72. My first time to visit here in the blog. Some people visited to here in the blog review is very good. Shiral Equestrian center is very helpful for me.paint by number kits

    ReplyDelete
  73. Before selling our home, we should first follow some important suggestion from different experts. As due to lack of knowledge about real estate and home selling process, we are facing different types of problems in the beginng.paint by number kits

    ReplyDelete


  74. Everyone is busy making the world dirty, no one has time to think about our nature. They even don't realize without the green environment we'll be unable to survive. Everyone knows the truth but none of them are aware of it.
    Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  75. This unique in fact perhaps even a very good arrange that i believe it or not in fact really enjoyed looking into. It is not necessarily consequently routine that i range from the substitute for verify a precise detail.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  76. Before selling our home, we should first follow some important suggestion from different experts. As due to lack of knowledge about real estate and home selling process, we are facing different types of problems in the beginning. But while taking the help of a real estate, we can easily develop our home selling procedure.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  77. Definitely agree with the first tip because you have to make sure your home is ready before you list it in the market. Improvements are really important and staging as well will help in getting the best possible price when selling your home. After the improvements, it is also good to get a professional photographer to take photos of your home that will highlight the areas of your home and help to attract potential buyers. Awesome blog by the way and thanks for sharing.lisa

    ReplyDelete

  78. Everyone is busy making the world dirty, no one has time to think about our nature. They even don't realize without the green environment we'll be unable to survive. Everyone knows the truth but none of them are aware of it.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  79. Definitely agree with the first tip because you have to make sure your home is ready before you list it in the market. Improvements are really important and staging as well will help in getting the best possible price when selling your home. After the improvements, it is also good to get a professional photographer to take photos of your home that will highlight the areas of your home and help to attract potential buyers. Awesome blog by the way and thanks for sharing.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  80. who gave express permission to share their excellently marked essays for all to browse and appreciate.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  81. Before selling our home, we should first follow some important suggestion from different experts. As due to lack of knowledge about real estate and home selling process, we are facing different types of problems in the beginning. But while taking the help of a real estate, we can easily develop our home selling procedure.Sonia Randhawa

    ReplyDelete
  82. you said that an entrepreneur should value his freedom. We lose our focus amidst all the worries and the hunger to earn more money. The sole priority as to why we chose to be entrepreneurs is lost somewhere in the darkness.Manchester Market

    ReplyDelete
  83. I throb people to realize just how affable this pay for an opinion is for your article. Its enticing, compelling content material. Your perspectives are much gone my personal getting into excuse to for this subject matter.lofi beats

    ReplyDelete
  84. This sounds like such a great trip and I just love your little collections of mementos! I’m heading to Paris for the first time later in the fall and would love a travel guide — especially on places to eat! ?Visit site for more info.jasa pembuatan patung fiber

    ReplyDelete
  85. It is rather very good, nevertheless glance at the data with this handle. repossessed property auctions

    ReplyDelete
  86. I enjoy your article. It is very handy when you are working on a project or busy with your hands. Definitely be conscious of where you are taking calls. If you wouldn’t talk on speakerphone, you shouldn’t talk on your Apple Watch.Visit this site for more information.pokies online

    ReplyDelete
  87. These are the themes I will touch on to try to make some sense out of what is happening to American health care and the steps we can personally take to make things better. 먹튀 커뮤니티

    ReplyDelete
  88. Our online courses are designed to help you build your future despite the hard times. We know what it feels like to want a better future but not know where to start. We are proud to be your starting place. Christine Sanni has built an award-winning career in technology; expanded her commitment and efforts towards environmental conservation; and is focused on helping others understand what makes them great. If you want to get the best place for online course visit Online learning sites

    ReplyDelete
  89. Our online courses are designed without walls and without invisible ceilings. And that means irrespective of who you are, you're going to have access to it all. Nothing held back, just empowering content that will not only teach you what's possible but also make you powerful. Distance learning can give you an online education. For more visit learning

    ReplyDelete
  90. This unique in fact perhaps even a very good arrange that i believe it or not in fact really enjoyed looking into. It is not necessarily consequently routine that i range from the substitute for verify a precise detail. Terrebonne

    ReplyDelete