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Sunday, 18 December 2016

SAFETY REQUIREMENT IN CEMENT INDUSTRIES

We were discussing “Cements and its types” and “Material preparation technology in cement manufacturing” in our previous posts. We have also see the concept of cement manufacturing process and its selection in our recent post. 

Today we are going to start here one very important topic i.e. Safety requirement in cement manufacturing process. We will understand the various terminologies and engineering concepts used in cement technology with the help of this category, but first read this article “Coal grinding and drying in cement industries”.

Further we will go for discussion of firing technology, clinker cooling and grinding, cement packing and dispatch, pollution control and much more facts about cement technology in our next post in this category of cement technology.

Safety Requirements

Special requirements intended to ensure safe operation of coal grinding plants have to be fulfilled in order to eliminate explosion hazards.

The potential existence of such hazards is due to the following factors

1.      Presence of combustible material in finely divided form.
2.      Dust concentration in coal within explosive range i.e. between the lower and upper limit of flammability.
3.      Oxygen present in concentration that can sustain explosion.
4.      Sources of ignition may develop.

The explosive range of pulverized coal depends on its physical properties such as its fineness and moisture content and on its chemical composition such as its ash content and the amount of volatile matter present.

In terms of oxygen concentration, the lower limit is around 14 % by volume of air in which coal particles are suspended. Lowering the oxygen content in the grinding circuit has the effect of raising this lower limit. The ignition temperature of the mixture of pulverized coal and air is also raised.
The most dangerous sources of ignition liable to initiate explosion are ‘smoldering pockets’ that may develop in coal dust deposits inside the plant.

In actual practice, the grinding plant normally operation under inert internal conditions is designed to an explosion resistant specification in that it is able to with stand pressure surges of a certain range. Maintenance, repairs and inspection of vital parts should be carried out only during plant shutdowns.

The principles and precautions applicable to coal grinding and drying are even more stringently applicable to lignite which is especially hazardous on account of its higher content of volatile matter.
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We will see other topic i.e. “Burning technology in cement manufacturing process” in our next post in the category of Steel and cement technology. 

I am very thankful to Mr. Subrata Bhaumik, Independent cement consultant, for providing such beautiful information and contents about cement technology. 

Mr. Subrata Bhaumik has more than 50 (Fifty) Years (1965 - 2016) of Experience in Cement and other related Industry covering more than 100 assignments in cement plants with capacities ranging from 100 tpd to 10,000 tpd in India and abroad involving visit to 25 countries overseas in connection with work.

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