We have seen the basic concepts of work and heat transfer in the field of thermal engineering and simultaneously we have also
seen the sign conventions used in thermodynamics for heat and work transfer. We
were discussing various forms of work such as displacement work or PdV work, paddle wheel work, flow work and shaft work in thermodynamics in our previous posts.

Today we will focus here over a very important topic
of thermodynamics and that is enthalpy. So let us see what is enthalpy?

###
**Enthalpy**

Enthalpy is basically defined as the property of the
system which will be basically the summation of internal energy (U) and the product
of pressure and volume i.e. PV. So we can write here the equation of enthalpy
as mentioned here.

#### H = U + PV

Where,

Enthalpy (H) will be measured in joules

Internal Energy (U) will be measured in joules

Pressure (P) will be measured in Pa

Volume (V) will be measured in m

^{3}
Enthalpy will be dependent over the quantity of mass
of the system and hence will be considered as the extensive property of the system.
As we have written above enthalpy is a state function because it will not be
dependent over the path. Enthalpy will be applicable for both type of the
system i.e. for open system and for close system too.

In thermodynamics, we focus over the calculation of change
in enthalpy as absolute enthalpy calculation is quite difficult and we do not
do calculation for absolute enthalpy.

Let we have a thermodynamic system and heat Q is
added to the system and system changes its state from state 1 to state 2. Let
pressure is constant here.

According to first law of thermodynamics, we will
have

∆U
= Q - W

Q
= ∆U + P dV

Q
= U

_{2}- U_{1}+ P (V_{2}-V_{1})
Q
= (U

_{2}+ PV_{2}) – (U_{1}+ PV_{1})
Q
= H

_{2}– H_{1}
Therefore, change in enthalpy will be equal to the
heat interacted with the system. If change in enthalpy is positive then its
means heat has been supplied to the system as it will be positive value if change
in enthalpy is positive.

We will come again with new topic i.e."Specific heat of a substance" in our next post
in area of thermodynamics.

Do you have suggestions? Please write in comment
box.

####
**Reference:**

Engineering thermodynamics by P. K. Nag

Basic thermodynamics by Prof. S.K. Som

Image courtesy: Google

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