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As we know that our energy demand increases on daily basis in worldwide and there is limitation of fossil fuel, coke, and some other important component of energy management system. 

In order to meet the growing requirement, we need to use energy secure from renewable types of sources such as from sun, wind, hydra or water.

And it must be noted that the most powerful source of energy in space is sun, during day period, sun provides energy around 1367 W/m2 to satellite. Hence, it is very important to harness energy from sun. 

It is observed that for 60 years, peoples are using photo voltaic or solar cells to convert the energy in sun rays in terms of photons in to beneficial energy in terms of current or electrons. 

In the cycle of converting sun energy in to current form utilize  semiconductors and these semiconductors release free electrons in the form of current when these semiconductors are excited with the help of photons, release a free electron that is then lose to flow as current. 

It is observed, in all form of conversion of energy, that this process of conversion of energy will be more efficient. Selection of materials and process of manufacturing have improved for last some years so that efficiency could be improved with the application of handsome grade of cheaper- terrestrial solar cells which is made from silicon.

it is also absorbed that conversion efficiency might be improved up to 32 % with the application of space grade solar cells which is made from triple junction gallium and also more expensive. Continuous researches are in process to develop such cells to secure conversion efficiency up to 40%. 

Solar panel is a device which is basically used to generate the power after absorbing sun light and this will be a green source of energy.

Solar panel is basically a complete set of solar photo voltaic modules those are connected electrically and situated on supporting structure. The solar module might be used as an important component of a largest photo voltaic system in order to produce & supply electric power in residential or in commercial sectors. 

Every module is provided and mentioned, with its DC output- power under STC i. e standard test conditions, and qualitatively values will be in the range of 100 to 320 watts. Single solar module may generate only a limited quantity of power. A photo voltaic system constitutes a panel, solar tracker, a battery, circuit diagram, and electrical wiring.

Air compressor 

Air compressor is used to compress the air and after compressing the air , temperature of air will be increased. Air compressor takes air from environment from suction port and compresses this air and provides same compressed air under high pressure. 

Before some years ago, it was common of having a centralized power source that drives tools with the help of system of wheels, belts & shafts. We may see every where the application of Air compressors such as in case of manufacturing units. In order to run these air compressors a lot of electrical energy will be required that depends on the quantity and pressure of air required. 

If we use electrical energy of non-renewable types to drive compressors then it will cause energy crisis and also will be costly. In these cases, renewable energy sources for example solar power system will be very helpful to drive such air compressor.

Pressure vessel

Pressure vessel is used to store the compressed air under higher pressure and it will provide compressed as per requirement. On regular inspection, engineers used to drain the condensed air. Compressor compresses the fresh atmospheric air in compressed air delivering from outlet of compressor will outward towards pressure vessel,


As we know that solar technology is not new one for us but solar power is utilized since mid of 1800 to heat the water to generate the steam for operating some machinery. 

During the year of 1839, it was discovered by the Alexandre Edmond Becquerel that photovoltaic effect that conclude that how electricity will be generated from sunlight and he suggested that that "shining light on an electrode submerged in a conductive solution would create an electric current."

But photovoltaic power seems to be not so much beneficial even a lot of researches were carried out and hence, solar cells used just for the measuring lights.

Conceptual Design 

Solar energy is clean, environment friendly and renewable energies that is cheaper than powered battery. 

Main concept behind design of solar panel is to gain the energy from the sun light and then solar controller will store this energy in the battery to operate a mechanical machine for example air compressor for producing air and this air will be stored in to pressure vessel.

The solar panel is a device which is one of the green energies. The solar cells absorb the sun lights to generate the power. The development of solar cell technology begins with the 1839 research of French physicist Antoine-César Becquerel. Another component in our design projects the Air compressor is a device that converts power into kinetic energy by compressing and pressurizing air. 

The first air compressors weren't machines, but human lungs: Primitive people blew on cinders to create a fire. 

We now know that healthy lungs. In 1762, John Smeaton, the first professional engineer, built a water wheel-driven blowing cylinder that began to replace the bellows. Yet another component for storing the power is the Pressure vessel; it is closed container designed hold the air in set pressure. 

Large pressure vessels were invented during the industrial revolution, particularly in Great Britain, to be used as boilers for making steam to drive steam engines.

Component of air compressor 

Major component of sir compressor is as mentioned below in figure  

Suggested and configuration of design

We will discuss here the complete design solution of solar panel and we will also discuss the wiring system for solar panel. 

Before going to design a solar panel system, we have to fix up the design constraints.
  • Solar panel that we are going to design should have ability to produce maximum power.
  • Solar panel should be cost efficient.
  • Solar panel should be limited in size.
Let us consider the wiring system for solar panel, as displayed below.

Now we will discuss how to design a solar panel, actually it is not as difficult to design a solar panel as we used to think. If we consider all form of renewable energy throughout the world, we will come to know about the sun light energy because energy secured from sun is clean energy and simultaneously abundant and renewable form of energy.

Therefore it is very important to consider designing a solar panel to minimize the costing in electricity. First we have to think what parts those are required for creating a solar panel and these are as described as below.

  • Solar cells
  • Tin wire
  • Plywood
  • Plexiglass
  • Solder
  • Silicon
  • UV protector
  • Volt meter
  • Rosin flux pen

Selection of material for above items 

In any design process, selection of material is very crucial phase where we have to consider following points
  • Costing of materials
  • Availability of materials
  • Required characteristics
  • Determination of proper quantities for each and every materials as for example we must consider that silicon should not be exceeds the proper limit.
Let us consider the process to manufacture the solar panel to produce energy to drive the mechanical system i.e. air compressor to produce compressed air and to store in pressure vessel.

1.    Cutting of plywood

First of all we have to cut our plywood as per the required size so that our solar cells may cover the complete plywood. On the basis of solar panel capacity we have to decide the quantity of solar cells to use. Usually for 100 W of power solar panel we normally prefer 80 numbers of solar cells 80 solar cells will produce about 100 W of power. In order to produce more power we can operate multiple solar panels.

2.    UV Protector

We have to apply some coating layer over plywood.

3.    Flux Pen

Trace the flux pen around the points of solder over the solar cells in order to keep the wiring down and this is a very important step to make sure that connections of the solar cells are proper..

4.    Solder the Solar Cells

Soldering process is carried out for connecting all of the wiring and solar cells in order to connect with the cells.

5.    Connection of solar cells to plywood

Application of silicon for binding of solar cells with the plywood

6.    Connection of wires through plywood

7.    Attaching border with the edge of plywood

8.    Attaching the plexiglass with the border

9.    Sealing process of plywood holes across wires

10.   Preventing moisture

Basic power analysis

Let us consider each step to calculate the amount of power produced by solar panel. Analysis is carried out to calculate the power produced from solar panel when solar panel is designed to produce power for driving a mechanical system producing air and store this air to pressure vessel.

In order to determine the power required for driving the mechanical system for producing air which is to be store in pressure vessel, we have to make some assumptions.

First assumption is that we have total five solar panels for our requirement to drive the machine for producing air which is to be stored in pressure vessel. Let us write all our assumption as displayed below.
  1. Solar Panels = 5
  2. Intensity of the Sun light= 1367 W/m2
  3. One Side surface area= 83 cm2
  4. Efficiency of solar cells = 28%
  5. Packing factor = 60% 
  6. Free rotation factor is ¼
As we know that intensity of sun is constant i.e. solar constant. Factor that we have taken for free rotation is taken from maintenance manual of solar cells. Surface area that we have selected is on the basis of size constraints and on the basis of site condition. Efficiency of solar cells might be taken from supplier of solar cells.

We will use following mentioned formula in order to calculate the required power

Power = Efficiency of solar cells x intensity of sun x surface area of all five side x factor packing x rotation factor 
On the basis of above formula we may secure the required power for driving the compressor for producing the air to store in pressure vessel.


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