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Different Types of Water Pumps and Flow

We were discussing Plumbing tools and their use Pipe and Plumbing fittings and Types of pipe connections in plumbing system in our previous discussions.

We will focus here to understand the pumps, type of pumps used in industries, type of flow and a simple pumping system with the help of this post. 


A pump is used to raise water from the well to the ground.

Pumps are mainly classified into two types:

1. Centrifugal pump

2. Reciprocating pump

Centrifugal Pump

A pump which is used to raise water from the lower level to the higher level by means of a

centrifugal force is known as a centrifugal pump.

A pump converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The mechanical energy is created from the electrical energy with the help of a motor.

Centrifugal pumps are classified into the following:

(a) Monoblock pump

(b) Jet pump

(c) Submersible pump

Monoblock pump

A Monoblock pump is shown in the following figure. The delivery head depends on the horse power (HP) of the motor under application.

Figure 1 : Monoblock Pump 

Jet pump

Jet pumps are commonly used to suck water from deep wells, and deliver to a shorter distance

only. A jet pump as used in practice is shown in the following figure. In a jet pump four to sixteen stage pumps are available to suck the water and deliver to a higher head.

Figure 2 : Jet Pump

Submersible pump

A submersible pump, as displayed here in the following figure, inside the water is used to deliver water outside bore ground.

It deliver fluid up to 80 to 100 feet and 160 to 180 feet respectively depending upon the number

of stages in the pump. These pumps are used in borewells of more than 100 feet.

Figure 3 : Submersible pump

Reciprocating Pump

A reciprocating pump is displayed here in the following figure. When the crank rotates, first the piston moves in an outward direction. Due to this vacuum is created inside the cylinder and water is coming in the suction pipe and entering into the cylinder due to the pressure difference. 

Further the piston moves in an inward direction. Due to this the pressure of the water is increased and goes out through the delivery pipe.

Figure 4 : Reciprocating pump

Types of Flow

We will discuss here the following types of fluid flow.

1. Gravity flow

2. Suction flow

3. Delivery flow

Gravity flow

In gravity flow, water flows from a high level to a low level by means of natural gravitational pull

Suction flow

A motor and pump is used to pump out the water from a lower level i.e. foot valve of the pumping system to a suction head of a pump.

Delivery flow

Water pumped from the ground level i.e. suction head to the top level i.e. delivery head of a pump is called delivery flow. 

Layout for a Delivery Line from the Pump Outlet

The pipeline fitting between the pump outlet and the extreme inlet to the tank is called delivery

line. A delivery line consists of a flange connected with a pipe. The pipe guides through the check valve or non return valve.

The purpose of a check valve or non return valve, as name suggests, is to avoid back pressure in the pipeline.

Here a gate valve is provided after the check valve to control the flow of fluid i.e. water here. Various pipe fittings such as elbows and couplings are used depending upon the delivery length. 

Figure 5 : Layout for a delivery line from the pump outlet

So, This is very brief writeup about the Pump, Type of pumps, Type of flow and general layout of delivery line from the pump outlet. This post will be very useful in our professional life being an engineer. 

We will see now the next post i.e. How to create plumbing line diagram ? 


Engineering Practices by Mr. S. SUYAMBAZHAHAN

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