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We were discussing Plumbing tools and their use with pictures. Let us now understand the Pipes and Fitting with the help of this post. 


Pipes are used for transmitting fluids (liquid or gas) from one place to another and to every suitable point in a building. Pipes are available in either black or galvanized form. Black pipes are used for transmitting oil, gas or air. Galvanized pipes are used for water supply systems as they resist rusting and corrosion. 

Cast iron Pipe 

Galvanized iron Pipe 

Flexible Pipe 

Pipe fittings 

Pipe fittings are usually made of wrought iron. The size of pipe fitting is designated by the size of the pipe on which it fits. There are different types of pipe fittings available in the market. 

Examples of some common fittings are displayed here in the following figure. 


It is a short cylindrical sleeve with internal threads throughout. A coupling is used for joining two

pipes in a straight and bend where at least one pipe can be turned. 


A union is used for joining two pieces of pipes, where either pipe piece can be turned or union can be turned for tightening. The union consists of three parts, two pieces of pipes (pipe 1 and pipe 2) and the third part (the center part) which is used for tightening. 


A nipple is a short piece of pipe (less than 300 mm of length) with external threads at both ends.

Nipples are available in standard length. It is used to make up the required length of a pipeline.


An elbow is to make an angle between adjacent pipes. The angle is always 90 degree unless another angle is started like 45 degree.  


A tee is a fitting that has one side outlet at a right angle to the run. It is used for a single outlet branch pipe. The tees are two types: they are equal tees and unequal tees. It is threaded in a T-shaped component used for distributing the supply of water at right angles to the direction of flow. 


A threaded pipe fitting having one of its ends larger than the other one is called an increaser or

reducer. It is used to connect two different sized pipes.


A plug is used to screw on to a threaded opening, for closing it temporarily. It is a short piece with external threads at one end and a square end on the other side.


Valves are used for regulating the flow of fluid through a pipe. These are placed on water supply

lines at desired points to shut off the flow of water. 

The commonly used valves in plumbing are as mentioned below 

Gate Valve 

Globe Valve 

Plug Valve 

Check Valve 

Air relief valve or needle valve 

Gate Valve 

Globe Valve 

Plug Valve 

Check Valve 

Also Read 



Engineering Practices by Mr. S. SUYAMBAZHAHAN

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