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Sunday, 15 September 2019

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A RECIPROCATING PUMP

In our last sessions, we were discussing the various important topics based on the centrifugal pumps and those topics could be accessed by finding the post centrifugal pump working principle

Today we will start here a new topic i.e. reciprocating pump. We will first find out here the basics of a pump, then we will introduce reciprocating pump and further we will see here main components of a reciprocating pump with the help of this post. We will also see the working principle of a reciprocating pump, but that will be discussed in our next post. 

So let us start here with the basics of a pump and introduction to reciprocating pump 

Hydraulic machines which convert the mechanical energy in to stored energy of fluid will be termed as pumps. Compressors, fans and blowers are also come under this category of hydraulic machines as they also convert mechanical energy in to stored energy of fluid. 

But, we will be interested here only about the pumps. So we will not discuss here about the compressors, fans and blowers. These types of hydraulic machines will be discussed further in our next posts. 

Stored energy of fluid is also termed as hydraulic energy and hence pumps are basically defined as the hydraulic machines which convert the mechanical energy in to hydraulic energy. 

We can also say that output of pumps will be in the form of stored mechanical energy. In case of pumps, stored mechanical energy comes in the form of static pressure or static head. 

If the mechanical energy is converted in to stored mechanical energy or pressure energy by means of centrifugal force acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine will be termed as centrifugal pump. 

If the mechanical energy is converted in to stored mechanical energy or pressure energy by sucking the liquid in to a cylinder in which a piston is reciprocating backward and forward, which exerts the thrust on the liquid and increases its hydraulic energy or pressure energy, the hydraulic machine will be termed as reciprocating pump. 

Main components of a reciprocating pump 

There are following main components of a reciprocating pump mentioned here. Following figure displayed here indicates the reciprocating pump. 



  1. A cylinder with a piston, piston rod, connecting rod, crank and crank shaft 
  2. Suction pipe 
  3. Delivery pipe 
  4. Suction valve 
  5. Delivery Valve 

Above figure indicates the single acting reciprocating pump. Piston will move within a cylinder in forward and backward direction towards inner dead center and outer dead center i.e. piston will execute the reciprocating motion within the tight fit cylinder. 

Reciprocating movement of piston within tight fit cylinder will be executed by connecting the piston with crank with the help of connecting rod as displayed in figure. Crank will be fixed with crank shaft which will be rotated by an electric motor. 

Suction pipe and delivery pipe will be fixed with the cylinder by means of suction valve and delivery valve respectively as displayed in above figure. 

Suction valve and delivery valve will be check valve i.e. non return valve and hence water may flow in one direction only through these valves. 

When piston will move towards right i.e. towards outer dead center, there will be fall in pressure of liquid and hence due to reduction in pressure suction valve will be opened and liquid will enter in to the cylinder. 

When piston will move towards left i.e. towards inner dead center, there will be increase in pressure of liquid and hence due to increase in pressure of liquid suction valve will be closed and delivery valve will be opened and liquid under high pressure will flow through the delivery valve to delivery pipe of reciprocating pump. 

So, we have seen here the basic of a pump and we have also find out the meaning of a reciprocating pump. Before completing this post, we have also seen the main components of a reciprocating pump and their function too in a reciprocating pump operation. 

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Further we will find out, in our next post, working principle of reciprocating pump

Reference: 

Fluid mechanics, By R. K. Bansal 
Image courtesy: Google  

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