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Thursday, 13 August 2015

ROOTS AND IMPACT OF ENGINEERING ON SOCIETY

The Roots of and Impacts of Engineering on Society

Stone tools

Stone tool means any tool that will be made of partially or completely with stones.
There are two below mentioned tools made of stone
1.    Flint tools
2.    Hominid tools

Innovations those have been covered from above mentioned stone tools

Chipping stones from either side (both side) in order to develop a nice symmetrical sharp cutting –edge so that it may be useful in cutting plants and meat also.

Variation in the form of tools for different applications of tools
Stones were very useful during ancient time for human as they use stones for different type of works according to their requirement. Flint tool was made with such a stone which was considered as softer stone as compared other stone tools.

Social /cultural impact seen by stone tools

Stone tools provided a lot of options for human to arrange food cloth during ancient time.

They used to used these stone tools in their daily basis work like for cutting the plants and fruit or for cutting the meats for foods, as days passes they have discovered different types of tools from stone to use in their daily life for example they have made following types of tools from stones.

·         Hammer stone tool
·         Core tool
·         Handaxe tool
·         Point tool
·         Awl tool
·         Burin tool
·         Bone needle tool
·         Harpoon tool

Economical impact

There are following economical impacts were observed from the roman road
1. Roman road made trade safer and faster
2. Roman road were also provided lot of flexibility to military peoples
3. Roman road provided flexibility and easiness to develop the business

Social impact

Roman road provided the better and effective transportation system that helps the society to develop their business and also help in sharing goods in lesser time.

Military Impact

Roman Road also helped to military as military troops have flexibility to move faster and with much comfortable.

Commercial impact

As we know that good transportation system is the key point for every business to grow and this facility was provided by roman road to all commercial people to develop their business and nation and society 

Cultural impact of the US interstate highway system

US interstate highway system provided good impact and these impacts are mentioned below.

US interstate highway system provided good impact on the US country economy; it increased the productivity and efficiency of nation by increasing speed of working.

US interstate highway system used less expensive land and made them the most key point of growth of the country by providing a good transportation system.

Its good transportation system provided the organization to develop the concept of just in time manufacturing and delivery .Thus it helped to increase the productivity of organization and hence for country growth also.

Impact of IC engine

Environmental impact of IC engine 

As we know that in order to develop an IC engine, we need Steel as well as aluminum also. And for steel and aluminum, we need their ore and other raw material and for these raw material and ore we need to mine from earth.

And for mining these ore and other raw materials we require a lot of energy, we also require lot of energy to refine these ore and raw material to convert in to desired shape and composition for the application in I C engine.

So we need to know that from where we will secure that much energy.

We secured that much energy from oil and coal and these are limited as they are nonrenewable form of energy resources. In order to develop these much energy we have to utilize the coal oil and other resources and these will affect our environment.

Social and cultural impact of IC engine

IC engine provided very good impact for society and for their cultural activities and these are mentioned below.

·         Transportation system was improved and avoided the use of horses for shipment
·         Activities carried out in agricultural areas were improved and farmers were used tractors instead of animals for their works in  agricultural areas
·         IC engine also play a vital role in mining & spinning mills.

Impact of US rail road

Economical impact of US rail road

·         Transportation system was improved
·         Time consumption in travelling were reduced
·         US rail road was found good steps from environmental point of view

Social impact of US rail road

·         Life was improved by consuming less time for shipment and self travelling
·         Communication system was improved
·         Business was encouraged 

Impact of the use of Nuclear energy

There is lot of impact of use of nuclear energy

Environmental impact

·         Air emissions – not produces carbon di-oxide and sulphur di-oxide those are hazardous for human.
·         Water resources- nuclear energy uses lot of water to produce the steam
·         Production of radioactive waste

Social impact

There is some bad impact of nuclear energy facility also over the society as peoples staying near nuclear energy generation unit have a lot of chance like cancer.

Impact of internet

There is lot of impact of internet uses

Education Impact  

Internet provide good flexibility to study for different topic, no need to transport the books and something else, we can study over internet about different topic in details

Economical impact 

Now these days approximate all are depends on internet for various works, such as for selling and purchasing we do not have to go but also we can purchase online also.

Organization and other professional companies are dependent completely on internet as their all works are related with internet and internet provides them better flexibility.

Social impact 

Internet provides a lot of flexibility to the peoples to do their work smoothly but there is some drawback of negative using of internet.

Impacts of Engineering on Society

The prehistoric age

Prehistory is the time period that was started with the appearance of the human being, approximate 5 million years before & ended with the discovery of writing, approximate 6,000 years before.

It was a period of development of primitive technological and social;
During this period it has been observed the development of early villages, agriculture, animal domestication, tools and the onset of the earliest recorded incidents of warfare

The superstition age

Superstition is a term used for showing belief in supernatural causality.

People normally believed that there are certain things, situations & events existed as the result of mystery and supernatural forces and this because of they did not understand them.

During this period  when even the most ordinary & common things  such as the rotation of the earth around the sun for producing the difference b/w day & night were not understood, it is no wonder that more unusual things would be held in awe and feared.

During this period, people believed that magician may fly & they have ability to reach the impossible distances using a broomstick that was a very thin household items used by women those days.

The Industrial age

It was a time period of 1750 to 1850, during this time there were observed a lot of changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, & technology.

During this period there was a thoughtful effect on the social, economical & cultural activities
It was observed a lot of revolution in industrial area so it was named industrial age. 

There are some development in industrial area are mentioned as following.

·         Introduction of steam power by consuming primarily by coal as fuel
·         Wider utilization of water wheels
·         Wider utilization of powered machinery especially in textile areas increases the productivity
·         The addition of all-metal machine tools during the first two decades of the 19th century simplifies the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. 

The Post industrial age

This period is a development, expanding on the growth of the industrial revolution, which results in the creation and production of knowledge and information rather than durable goods. Just like in the industrial revolution, when machines began taking over the physical power of the skill man, we now have computer taking over the mental power of labor. Digital technology is amplifying mental labor.

This new revolution is providing a greater expansion of information, information networks and data banks. Also the transportation of data is able to be sent and receive on a much faster level.

Environmental engineering 

Solid and hazardous waste management 

1.    Identification of solid wastes
2.    Identification of major sources of solid wastes
3.    Identification of different types of solid wastes
4.    Determination of effect of solid waste on human health
5.    Determination of ecological effect of solid waste
6.    Identification of tools to remove the effect of solid wastes
7.    Identification of public health and risk assessment
8.    Determination of classification of solid wastes
9.    Identification of advantage of calculating the generation rate of solid  wastes
10. Identification of all factors that decide the generation rate of solid  wastes
11. Calculations of solid wastes –compositions
12. Determination the volume and quantity also of solid wastes
13. Concept of Putrescible solid waste
14. Concept of Non-Putrescible solid waste.
15. Determination of hazardous wastes
16. Determination of need of solid waste storage containers
17. Determination of disposal process for common dead body 

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