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TYRE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

Life cycle analysis of tyre is a basic technique to study complete analysis from receiving of raw material to final product and recycling of tyre after completion of life. Under this technical life cycle analysis we will discuss following points in details.
  1. Mining and/or processing of raw materials
  2. Manufacture and/or assembly of the component
  3. Consumer use
  4. Post-consumer processing, e.g. recycling
  5. Transportation at any stage of the lifecycle
  6. Any additional material relevant to the topic selected

Mining and/or processing of raw materials

The most important raw materials for manufacturing a tyre  are materials as mentioned following.
  1. Natural rubber
  2. Synthetic rubber
  3. Carbon black
  4. Oil
The contribution of compounds of rubber in the whole weight of a tyre is approximately more than 80%. Other 20 % are different types of reinforcing items.

It is concluded that approximately one-half of the rubber compounds are basically natural rubbers those are received from a rubber-tree. Rubber trees are normally found in tropics and in countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia. 

European producers play vital role in providing raw materials for tyre. European producers provide the synthetic and rubber of oil based.

Filler substances those are used such as carbon black and oil play very important role to achieve customer demand. Carbon black contributes to make tyres in black color. Hardening agent and vulcanising agents, protective agents and different types of booster chemicals are also used in the rubber compounds.

There are some other also important constituents in manufacturing the tyre
  1. Anti-degradants: paraffin waxes and ozonants.
  2. Adhesion promoters: Resin on fabric, brass on wire and cobalt salts
  3. Curatives: Activators, cure accelerators and sulfur
Latex, which is basically milky white, extracted from tree. Time consumed is about 20 second only to extract milky white latex from a tree. In one day latex are extracted from 450 to 460 numbers of tress by one person. Latex play vital role to manufacture the rubber which is most important raw item for manufacturing the tyre.

This latex is combined along with sulphur, carbon, oil & other various types of chemicals and after that it will pass through a number of processes and finally produces black sheet of rubber. Once this sheet of rubber is secured then it must be heated. 

Nylon of thinner length and polyester are woven into them in order to provide the required rigidity. This Woven sheets will be the base of tyre.
During the selection of raw materials, it is very important to consider the cost of each constituent, because tyre manufacturing companies are completely raw material intensive and let us discus the cost of each constituent as in percentage of total cost of raw material.
Sr. No
Description
Percentage of total raw material cost
1
Natural rubber
43
2
Nylon tyre cord fabric
18
3
Carbon black
11
4
Rubber Chemical
5
5
Butyl rubber
4
6
PBR
5
7
SBR
5
8
Others
9

Let us draw pie- chart for frequent understanding of above data 

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