We have
seen basics of remote area supply system in our previous post “Remote area power supply system” i.e. part 1, we will suggest first read previous post and
then follow this post as this post is in continuation of previous post.
Optimization of the System
The optimization of the system is to
install some component for convenience and comfort for people living in this
house, and also life of battery bank can be extended. However, because of the
addition of new components, investment and maintain fee increase.
The optimization can ensure that the system is enough efficient, convenient, and comfort to people, while it will not impact the normal usage of the system, if the system is not optimized.
The optimization can ensure that the system is enough efficient, convenient, and comfort to people, while it will not impact the normal usage of the system, if the system is not optimized.
Transfer Switch and Generator Upgrade
Transfer switch can allow the
generator to supply electricity directly to the house by switching the power
resource from battery bank to generator, and hence the generator will be
supporting the house consumption and mean while the excess power of generator
can recharge the battery bank. However, to place a transfer switch needs to
enlarge the power capacity of the generator; otherwise the generator will not
generate sufficient power to supply the house. Thus, the optimization for
transfer switch will be with an upgrade of generator.
This report will select Eaton GREEN
Automatic Transfer Switch to connect an upgraded generator and loads. This
switch can monitor the power output of the power source, and will switch
between generator and battery bank automatically, if ever the power output
decreased. The operating voltage of the switch is 240 V AC with frequency of
50/60, which is fitted to the house.
Eaton
GREEN Automatic Transfer Switch
Because of the addition of transfer
switch, the generator can provide electricity directly to the loads, so that a
larger power capacity generator is a must. The new generator is expected to
supply electricity to the house and meanwhile have the battery bank recharged,
and hence the power capacity will be not less than 6252.17 W (sum of peak
demanding power and battery bank recharging power), which is determined by
assuming that the battery bank can be recharged for one day consumption in less
than 5 hours.
This report selects YAMAHA Gentech 6.8kVA Electric/Recoil Start Petrol Generator for the optimized system, which has capacity of 6800 W in voltage of 230 V. The new generator will recharged the battery bank with no longer time than the previous system, after the battery bank energy is used out and the transfer switch turn on the new generator as power resource.
This report selects YAMAHA Gentech 6.8kVA Electric/Recoil Start Petrol Generator for the optimized system, which has capacity of 6800 W in voltage of 230 V. The new generator will recharged the battery bank with no longer time than the previous system, after the battery bank energy is used out and the transfer switch turn on the new generator as power resource.
YAMAHA
Gentech 6.8kVA Electric/Recoil Start Petrol Generator
Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Array
Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)
is a device to ensure the solar array is working at its maximum power. MPPT is
also a kind of charge controller and current regulator to protect battery bank
from unstable voltage and current.
This report will select SMA Maximum Power Point Tracker for the solar array, which the 24 V model can bearing 1250 W input power from PV panel and maximum output of 1200 W. The efficiency of this MPPT is 98%, which is very high efficiency, and the energy loss due to MPPT can be neglected, because it is not deserved to purchase another PV panel to cover such little quantity of energy.
This report will select SMA Maximum Power Point Tracker for the solar array, which the 24 V model can bearing 1250 W input power from PV panel and maximum output of 1200 W. The efficiency of this MPPT is 98%, which is very high efficiency, and the energy loss due to MPPT can be neglected, because it is not deserved to purchase another PV panel to cover such little quantity of energy.
SMA
Maximum Power Point Tracker
Water Heating Equipment
As the report estimated previously,
the daily hot water consumption is at least 169.8 L, and no excess electricity
for water heating from solar array, battery bank and generator, a solar water
heater is needed to provide people with hot water. The solar water heater will
be installed independently. This report will select Bosch 250 L Electric
Boosted Solar Hot Water System for the house.
Bosch
250 L Electric Boosted Solar Hot Water System
Analysis and Calculations
Analysis and Calculations for Options of Economic Evaluation
Assuming the daily consumption of a
house is 4.5 kWh, and the yearly consumption is 1642.3 kWh, and hence the
consumption in 25 years is 41062.5 kWh, which the evaluation will be based on.
Option A: Grid Connection
The initial investment is 40000, and
the electric cost except connection fee is $ 0.25 per kWh.
Cost = [40000/1642.3]+0.25 = 1.22 $
Option B: Petrol Generator & Battery Bank
Model

Industry
Rating KVA

Power
Watts

Engine

Starting
System

Frame

Tank
LTS

Fuel
LTS/HR

PB033

3.3

2600w

6hp
Vanguard

Recoil

Scoop

4

1.8

The performance Data of Powerlite 3.3 kVA Recoil Start Petrol Generator
Running hours = 4.5/3.3= 1.36 hrs
Consumption of fuels = 1.8 * 1.36 =
2.45 L
Assuming the petrol price is $ 1.4
per liter.
Fuel cost per KWh = 2.45  1.4/4.5 =
0.76 $ /KWh
Yearly fuel cost = 0.76 * 4.5 * 365
= 1248.3 $
Assuming the inflation rate and
interest rate are 8% and 10% respectively in life cycle of 25 years.
Cost of fuel= P W F ( 8% ,10 %
,25)*1248.3=24803.7$
The price of the generator is 915
dollars. Assuming the life of generator is 5 years
Cost of engine = 3840.17$
The system is designed to operate
with voltage of 24 V.
Amp hr of battery bank = 4500/24= 187.5
Ah
The battery bank is 6 batteries of
Solar Block Sealed Gel Battery 12 V 130Ah connected in series, and two of the
series connected in parallel, which can provide 24 V and 260 Ah energy for
fitting the system and demanding of the house.
The price of battery is 819.08 dollars, and hence the price of battery bank is 4914.18 dollars. Assuming that the batter life is 5 years
The price of battery is 819.08 dollars, and hence the price of battery bank is 4914.18 dollars. Assuming that the batter life is 5 years
Cost of battery (after calculation)
= 20632.6 $
Final cost per KWh = 1.2 $ / KWh
Option C: Petrol Generator & Battery Bank & PV Panel
The solar array designing is based
on the statistics of solar radiation in Melbourne for inclined flatplate. In
order to reduce the size of the system, the solar array is designed according
to the solar radiation data of January (summer).
Solar arry power = 4500/7.08 = 908
Watt
Thus, the solar array has to provide
at least 908 watts of power, so that the report used Sanyo 230Watt
Polycrystalline Solar Panel for economic evaluation. 4 of the panels are
installed producing power of 920 watts with 24 V system voltages.
Therefore, the cost of solar array is 1440 dollars (estimated by using the average price for commercial PV panels searched on websites.
Therefore, the cost of solar array is 1440 dollars (estimated by using the average price for commercial PV panels searched on websites.
Because of solar array, the cost on
fuel is reduced. The fuel cost on each month of one year is estimated as
following table shows.
Peak
Sun Hour

Daily
Energy Produced by PV Panel

Daily
Energy Compensated by Petrol Gerator

Daily
Cost of Fuel

Monthly
Cost of Fuel

in
h

in
kW

in
kW

in
dollar

in
dollar

7.1

4561.7

61.7

0.0

1.4

6.5

4203.9

296.1

0.2

6.8

5.7

3685.1

814.9

0.6

18.6

4.6

2969.6

1530.4

1.2

34.9

3.4

2218.2

2281.8

1.7

52.0

3.1

1967.8

2532.2

1.9

57.7

3.2

2057.2

2442.8

1.9

55.7

3.9

2522.3

1977.7

1.5

45.1

4.8

3076.9

1423.1

1.1

32.4

5.8

3703.0

797.0

0.6

18.2

6.3

4078.7

421.3

0.3

9.6

6.8

4347.0

153.0

0.1

3.5

Cost
of Fuel in each Month of a Year
Thus, the total cost of fuel for one
year is 334.5 dollar.
Cost of fuels for 25 years = 6646.12
$
final cost per KWh = 0.79 $ / KWh
Estimation for Aero Generator
The yearly average wind speed of
Melbourne is 11.7 km/h, or 3.25m/s. Air Breeze Marine 24Volt 200Watt Wind
Turbine, for example, has rated power of 200 W in wind speed of 12.5 m/s.
Thus, the ratio of wind speed of Melbourne to rated wind speed is 0.26. Also, the aero generator has cut out wind speed of 49.2 m/s, and hence the ration of cut out wind speed to rated wind speed is 3.94. Based on the two ratios and Figure. A1, the aero generator has average output power only around 1% of its rated power. Such low average output power is not deserved to pay thousands of dollars.
Thus, the ratio of wind speed of Melbourne to rated wind speed is 0.26. Also, the aero generator has cut out wind speed of 49.2 m/s, and hence the ration of cut out wind speed to rated wind speed is 3.94. Based on the two ratios and Figure. A1, the aero generator has average output power only around 1% of its rated power. Such low average output power is not deserved to pay thousands of dollars.
Estimated of Expected Average Output Power for Aero
Generator
Analysis and Calculations for Power Supply System
According to catalogue of
appliances, the total power of the households is 7771 W, and the electric
energy consumption is 5780 and 5980 kWh for summer and winter respectively.
Since it is not likely that all of the appliances are running, and thus the
report takes half of total power as peak power of the house, which is 3885.5 W.
Inverter
Inverter has a rated power that must
be larger than the peak power of the house, and also the inverter decides the
system voltage, which is 24V in this report. The report selected 8ZED 24 V 5000
W Power Inverter for the house, and its efficiency is 90%.
Battery Bank
The battery bank is designed to
contain energy twice of the daily consumption of the house. In order to
overcome the energy consumption in inverter, the battery bank has to provide
more energy for daily use.
Energy for summer day = 5789/0.9 =
267.59 Ah
Energy for winter day = 5980/0.9 =
276.85 Ah
Because winter has larger energy
consumption, the battery bank will be designed based on the daily consumption
of 276.85 Ah. The energy contained in battery bank should be twice of 276.85 Ah
for system voltage of 24 V (the daily depth of discharge is assumed as 0.5)
Minimum energy storage for battery
bank = 276.85/0.5= 533.7 Ah
The report selects
RayliteMIL17Sbattery bank for the system, which has an allowable discharge
efficiency of 90%.
Battery Capacity = 600 * 0.9/276.85
= 1.95 days
The battery bank can support the
system running 1.95 days without recharge.
Battery Charger
The report selects Stunbury
NG12/70G for the batter bank, which can recharge the battery bank by 70 A in
less than 5 hours with system voltage of 24 V.
Recharging time = 600/70 = 4.29 hrs
Petrol Generator
The output power of petrol generator
must satisfy the input power of battery charger. Output power of battery
charger has to determined, and then the input power of the charger can be
calculated by output power dividing the efficiency of charger.
Charger output power = 70 * 24 =
1680 W
Charger input power = 1680/ 0.9 =
1866.67 W
Thus, the report selects Honda
2kVA Domestic Generator Kitfor the power supply system.
Solar Array
Because the system will be over size
in summer, if the solar array is designed based on the daily consumption of winter,
the solar array will be designed according to data of summer.
Peak sun hour of Melbourne in the
month of January = 7.08 kwh//m2 day
The peak sun hour of summer
(January) is 7.08, which means the number of hours needed at peak sun radiation
condition to have an equal amount of energy from sun for one day.
Solar array minimum power =
5780/7.08= 816 W
This report selects Suntech 140W 12V
Monocrystalline Solar Panel for the solar array Number of panels = 816/140 =
6
The arrangement of the panels is
that 2 series connected in parallel and each of the series consists of 3
panels, since the panel has operating voltage of 17.6 V and operating current
of 7.95 A. The suggested arrangement can provide 35.2 V to fit the system voltage
of 24 V.
Analysis and Calculations for Optimization
Household electric appliances in
Australia normally work in 230 V and 50/60 Hz. The report selects Eaton GREEN
Automatic Transfer Switch for the system.
Because of installation of transfer
switch, the petrol generator is directly connected to the house, and hence a
new generator that can supply the consuming of house and mean while recharge
the battery bank is needed.
Generator minimum power
output = 6252.17 W
The report decides YAMAHA Gentech
6.8kVA Electric/Recoil Start Petrol Generator to upgrade the system.
Maximum Power Point Tracker
Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)
is a device to ensure the solar array is working at its maximum power. MPPT is
also a kind of charge controller and current regulator to protect battery bank
from unstable voltage and current.
This report will selectSMA Maximum Power Point Tracker for the solar array, which the 24 V model can bearing 1250 W input power from PV panel and maximum output of 1200 W. The efficiency of this MPPT is 98%, which is very high efficiency, and the energy loss due to MPPPT can be neglected, because it is not deserved to purchase another PV panel to cover such little quantity of energy.
This report will selectSMA Maximum Power Point Tracker for the solar array, which the 24 V model can bearing 1250 W input power from PV panel and maximum output of 1200 W. The efficiency of this MPPT is 98%, which is very high efficiency, and the energy loss due to MPPPT can be neglected, because it is not deserved to purchase another PV panel to cover such little quantity of energy.
Water heating machine capacity
Daily water consumption = 169.8 l
Therefore, the report selects Bosch
250 L Electric Boosted Solar Hot Water System as the water heating equipment
for the house.
Catalogue
of Appliances and Final Optimized Electric Energy Consumption Estimation
Let us move for next technical
post, please do not forget to provide your suggestion and comments over here,
it will help us to improve blog quality
Also
discuss
 8 ways to prevent bearing failure
 Application of fluid power hydraulic
 Hydraulic sequence valve operation
 Basics of shaft alignment
 Difference between pressure reducing valve and pressure relief valve
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