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Steel sector are growing rapidly these days and we have good opportunity to secure a nice job in any steel manufacturing unit if we have knowledge about the steel manufacturing sector and material flow during the manufacturing of steel.

Let us study this blog and I am assuring you, we will have following information once we study this blog.

Let us see what we are going to understand and what is the objective of studying this blog of steel manufacturing unit -material flow analysis.


In this Blog we have to find the following points

1.    Material flow analysis principle and Material flow chart for manufacturing the steel.
2.    Avoid or reduction of complexities of the system as much as possible by providing the better concept of material flow.
3.    Asses the relevant flows and stock in suitable terms.
4.    Presenting the result about flow and stock of system in reproducible, transparent and understandable way.
5.    Classification of material flow analysis.

We will also secure one live example to understand the exact analysis of material movement in steel industries.


Material flow analysis or MFA is basically defined as an efficient estimation of the flows of material as well as material stocks within a specified system along with the given time and space. 

In material flow analysis we will study about the connection between sources, route, intermediate steps as well as final sinks of material. It is quite easy to control the process and desired final output if we have understanding of the each step of material movement during manufacturing.


Steels are used nearly everywhere for example in industries, in residential area or in local market. In this study we will discuss about the material flow during the making of steel.

Raw materials

Let us discuss what type of raw materials we use

1.    Scraps of relevant grade and compositions

2.    Dolomite, Coke, Iron ore fines, pellet , chrome & coke fines

3.    Alloying elements such as Ni, Cr, Mo, and Cu, S, P, Al & carbon.

Design and manufacturing Process

There is some design and manufacturing constraints that we have to study before going to start the manufacturing the steel.

1.    Grades of materials

2.    Environmental condition where steel that we are going to be used

3.    Requirement of tensile strength, hardness, resistant against corrosion & toughness.

4.    Dimensions & other specifications required by customers

Manufacturing process

Manufacturing process of steel could be understood in following way, where we will be able to understand about process step by step.

Arc Furnace

Arc furnace is machinery which is used for melting the scrap. Arc furnace is basically work on the principle of arc. There will be electrodes in arc furnaces. Temperature will be maintained around 1750 degree centigrade.


Argon oxygen decarburization, in this system final composition of desire grade of steel will be prepared.

Continuous casting System

Continuous casting system converts molten metal in to solidified product such as steel billet, bloom or ingot or slab also.

Rolling Mill

In this unit hot billet will be re rolled in order to secure the desired shape and size of product such as wire , angle , channel , bar etc.

For better understanding, we may also refer the following flow chart where we may understand the flow process by pictorial view. 


The above figure or flow diagram basically shows how the integrated manufacturing of steel / iron with the help of application of the BF i.e. blast furnace and BOF i.e. basic oxygen furnace and it must be noted that this is the very common process which is used in approx 51% out of world steel production. 

Once the process of BF or BOF, molten metal will be controlled for a target chemical composition as well as temperature also and then liquid metal will be go for process of casting by the CCM i.e. continuous casting machine in order to produce the slabs, billets & blooms. 

These castings metal will be undergoing for rolling process for the required specifications by the unit of rolling mill in order to produce the products of steel. 

Alloying element and Reducing agent

In case of Blast furnace, carbon monoxide will be the main reducing agent and will be produced by the oxidation of carbon in coke.

Hot metal will be then undergoing for decarburization in basic oxygen furnace. The liquid metal will refined in basic oxygen furnace, ladle refining furnace or in argon oxygen decarburization. 

The required chemical composition of steel as per requirement of grade will be prepared in this basic oxygen furnace/ ladle refining furnace / argon oxygen decarburization

When molten metal will be prepared as per the required chemical constituents of required grade then liquid metal will be tapped in ladle for next step of addition of some alloying element for complete chemical constituents.
Lets move forward for another material flow analysis for any other product .

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