Wednesday, 10 May 2017

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIRECT STRESS AND BENDING STRESS

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIRECT STRESS AND BENDING STRESS

In our previous topics, we were discussing the basic concept of direct stresses and bending stresses, where we have discussed that if a body is subjected to axial tensile or compressive loads and also to bending moments, in that situation there will be produced direct stress and bending stress in the body.

We have determined there the resultant stress when a column will be subjected with an eccentric load and load was eccentric with respect to single axis i.e. YY axis.

Today we will continue here with one very important topic in strength of material i.e. difference between direct stress and bending stress and also we will see here resultant stress when a column will be subjected with an eccentric load and load will be eccentric with respect to both axes i.e. XX and YY axis.

Let us go ahead step by step for easy understanding, however if there is any issue we can discuss it in comment box which is provided below this post.

 
Before going ahead, let us first brief here the basics of direct stresses and bending stresses for easy understanding and after that we will see here the determination of resultant stress when a column will be subjected with an eccentric load and load will be eccentric with respect to both axes i.e. XX and YY axis.

As we have discussed that when a body will be subjected with an axial tensile or axial compressive load, there will be produced only direct stress in the body. Similarly, when a body will be subjected to a bending moment there will be produced only bending stress in the body.

Now let us think that a body is subjected to axial tensile or compressive loads and also to bending moments, in this situation there will be produced direct stress and bending stress in the body.

Direct stress

Let us consider one column, as displayed in following figure, which is fixed at one end and let us apply one load P axially to the other end of the column. In simple, we can say that column will be subjected to compressive load and as load is applied axially, there will be developed direct compressive stress only in the body and intensity of this direct compressive stress will be uniform across the cross section of the column.
We have following information from above figure
P = Axial applied compressive load which is acting on the column through its axis
A= Area of cross section of the given column
Area of cross section of the given column = b x d, (For rectangular cross section)
σd = Direct compressive stress developed in the column due to axial applied compressive load
b= Width of the cross section of the given column
d= height or depth of the cross section of the given column

 
Direct compressive stress developed in the column = Axial applied compressive load/ Area of cross section of the given column

σd = P/ A
σd = P/ (b x d)
Unit of Direct compressive stress = N/mm2

Bending stress

Now let us consider one column, as displayed in following figure, which is fixed at one end and let us apply one load P to the other end of the column at a distance e from the axis of the column. In simple, we can say that column will be subjected to an eccentric load and line of action of this load will be at a distance e from the axis of the column. 
Distance between the axis of the column and line of action of load i.e. e will be termed as eccentricity of the load and such load will be termed as eccentric load. There will be produced direct stress and bending stress in the column due to this eccentric load.

Unit of bending stress = N/mm2

Recall the concept of bending stress and we will write here the expression for the bending stress developed in the body. 
Where,
I is the area moment of inertia  of the column rectangular section across the axis YY
I = db3/12
M = Moment formed by the load P
M= P x e 
P = Load applied with an eccentricity e
y = Distance of the point from neutral axis where bending stress is to be determined

Let us come to the main topic i.e. resultant stress when a column will be subjected with an eccentric load and load will be eccentric with respect to both axes i.e. XX and YY axis.

Let us see the following figure, where one column is subjected with a load which is eccentric with respect to XX axis and YY axis. We have following information from this figure as mentioned here.
P = Eccentric load applied on column
b = Width of the column
d = depth of the column

ex = Eccentricity of load with respect to XX axis
eY= Eccentricity of load with respect to YY axis 

σd = Direct stress = P/ (b x d)
σbX = Bending stress due to eccentricity of load with respect to XX axis
σbY = Bending stress due to eccentricity of load with respect to YY axis

MX, Moment of eccentric load about XX axis = P x ex
MY, Moment of eccentric load about YY axis = P x eY

IX, Moment of inertia about XX axis = bd3/12
IY, Moment of inertia about YY axis = db3/12

 
We will calculate here the direct stress, bending stress due to eccentricity of load with respect to XX axis and bending stress due to eccentricity of load with respect to YY axis and finally we will add these stresses algebraically to secure the resultant stress.

Direct stress

Direct stress is already calculated above and it is as mentioned here
σd = P/ (b x d)

Bending stress due to eccentricity of load with respect to XX axis

σbX = (MX . y )/IX
σbX = (P . ex . y )/IX
Value of IX is already determined above, bd3/12
Value of y will be in the range of (- d/2) to (+ d/2)

Bending stress due to eccentricity of load with respect to YY axis

σbY = (MX . x )/IY
σbY = (P . eY . x )/IY
Value of IY is already determined above, db3/12
Value of y will be in the range of (- b/2) to (+ b/2)

Resultant stress (σR) will be calculated as mentioned here

Let us determine the resultant stress at each point

Point A, resultant stress

As we can observe here that value of co-ordinates X and Y will be negative here and therefore resultant stress will be minimum at this point

Point B, resultant stress

As we can observe here that value of co-ordinate X will be positive and value of co-ordinate Y will be negative here and therefore resultant stress will be written as mentioned here
R)B = σd + σbX - σbY

Point C, resultant stress

As we can observe here that value of co-ordinates X and Y will be positive here and therefore resultant stress will be maximum at this point

Point D, resultant stress

As we can observe here that value of co-ordinate X will be negative and value of co-ordinate Y will be positive here and therefore resultant stress will be written as mentioned here
R)B = σd - σbX + σbY

Please comment your feedback and suggestions in comment box provided at the end of this post. We will discuss another topic in our next post.

Reference:

Strength of material, By R. K. Bansal
Image Courtesy: Google

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