We were discussing various basic
concepts of thermodynamics such as “

*Thermodynamic system, boundary and surrounding*” in our recent post. We have also discussed the “*pure substances”*and also “*Mass balance and energy balance fora steady flow process*” in the field of thermal engineering.*steady flow energy equation for throttling devices*in our next post.

### Let us first see here the basic concepts of nozzle and diffuser

Nozzle is an engineering device which
will accelerate the fluid and hence fluid velocity or kinetic energy of fluid
will be increased while pressure of fluid will be reduced.

Diffuser is an engineering device which
will decelerate the fluid and hence fluid velocity or kinetic energy of fluid
will be decreased while pressure of fluid will be increased.

Following figure displayed here,
indicates the nozzle and diffuser and also it indicates the variation of velocity and pressure with the help of the curve as shown in following figure.

Let us consider the case of nozzle and
let us write here the steady flow energy equation

Here, heat energy transfer or work
energy transfer across the system boundary will be zero and change in potential
energy will also be zero. Therefore we will have following equation as
displayed here.

_{1}is small as compared to the discharged velocity or velocity at exit section V

_{2}, in that case we will have following equation because V

_{1}

^{2 }will be too much low as compared to V

_{2}

^{2}and therefore we can ignore the term (V

_{1}

^{2}/2) and hence we will have following equation as displayed here.

We must note it here that above
equations is also valid for diffuser.

###
**Applications
of nozzle and diffuser**

Nozzles and diffusers are normally used
in various applications such as jet engines, rockets, garden hoses and spacecraft
too.

We will see the “

*Throttling devices*” and also “*Carnot cycle*” in our upcoming posts.
Do you have suggestions? Please write in
comment box

####
**Reference:
**

Engineering thermodynamics by P.K. Nag

Engineering thermodynamics by R. K.
Rajput

Image courtesy: Google