Tuesday, 13 January 2015

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN


This post is related with the discussion of each and every phases of design, after reading this blog post we will have ability to understand the principle of design. There are various phases and we will have to understand each phase in detail for better understanding of concept of design. So let us start to understand.

Planning phase of construction phases

Planning phase is also known as pre-construction stage and we can understand it by following steps

1.    Objective establishment

The first step is setting of objective or defining the objective, the important point during fixing the objective is that the objective should be achievable and also under the policy of corporate or organization.

2.    Identification of project activities

This is 2nd step where all the activities will be displayed those are required to complete & achieve the objective during identification of activities one point should be considered that each and every activity should be result oriented .for example survey of site and layout.

3.    Determination of Sequence of objectives

In this step project in charge has to decide the correct sequence of activities i.e. which activity will be followed by which activity. The sequence of activities should be such a way that it can be able to achieve the objective of project in minimum time. There should not be any confusion regarding the sequence of activities because it can destroy the project.

4.    Determination of duration of activities

In this step the project in charge will calculate the normal duration of each activity.
There may be some variation in time to complete each activity but by calculating & mentioning the normal duration for each activity will provide the states of project at any time.

5.    Perform schedule calculation

When project in charge decided the duration for each activity, then he will be able to calculate the duration of various activity path or sequence.

Critical path- the longest path through the network, it provides the information about the duration of the project.
Float or slack- the shortest path through the network

6.    Revise and Adjust

On the basis of previous point result, project in charge can understand that what possible changes may be required to complete the project in time.

7.    Monitoring & controlling

These scheduling & planning are the base to understand the project need and other required information like it will give us the information that when work will be started .it should be noted that in actual case the work or duration to complete may vary or may be beyond our decided time duration, so in this point project in charge will control & arrange to complete that tasks as per decided time period.

8.    Special requirement

Project in charge will decide that if there is any such activity that requires some particular instrument or device .he will mention in this column and also mention duration and quantities.

9.    Safety

Project in charge will ensure that all the safety devices and instruments are available on site for example safety belt, helmet shoes and gloves (if required).

10. Spare plan

Project in charge will ensure that all the required materials & spares are available at sites, so that work will not be stopped due to the non availability of material.

11. Availabilities of utilities

Project in charge will ensure that from where he will arrange water electricity and compressed gas.
Theses all documents are required to be approved by planning authority

Design phase

Introduction

  1. Aim of this phase is to clarify the requirement of design for the project. 
  2. In this stage the project in charge wishes to compress the schedule
  3. It needs the update version of CAD

People

  1. Any project is useless until unless it is designed by considering cost factor, safety factor and time factor. This point should be understood by project in charge and other person involved in project
  2. Stack holders should be under consideration and up to date, so that as design progresses the parties those are interested may be involved at suitable stage.
  3. There should be good relation between companies and involved team so that project may run at each stage without any interruption and complete at given time.
  4. There should be a single design team with expertise in all field and they should be able to involve all the concern people at respective stage.
  5. The design should be such that there will be minimum requirement of review of design.
  6. All team should be supported by a good communication system.
  7. Every team member should be known about their rolls & responsibilities.
  8. Team member should be well trained about that project so that the efficiency can provide the best project.

Project Scope

  1. In this stage the project in charge can evaluate that which area is fully defined and there will be no risk and it can proceed with good efficiency.
  2. The extent of design should be defined clearly from starting, because some parts of design are usually left by project member on contractor.
  3. Involvement of contractor and supplier with project team should be as soon as possible because it will avoid the confusion in future.
  4. One important thing should be remembered during the design of project that every part of project should be understood by contractor with the help of project in charge, usually some difficult part of design is left on contractor and contractor struggle with that part, this will reduce the efficiency of the project team and delayed the project.

Over design

If some important information is absent, the project in charge will decide the maximum expected value e.g. weight of system, stiffness of member, deflection of member.

Design process

A.    In design process there should be planning of design sequence and there will be need of some information as listed below.
1.      Drawing
2.      Design information
3.      Documents
4.      Materials
5.      Instruments
6.      Equipment's
7.      Manpower
B.     Project in charge should have all information about the specification of devices and material used in project.
C.     Review of design should be in deep
D.    If there is lack of information then involved expert person to assume that data
E.     Selection of design option should be such that it will complete the project in minimum time.

Freeze the design

  1. Freeze only that part of design, which is accepted as constraints on the remaining part of design
  2. Reduce the number of processing time and step.

 

Strategy

  1. Consider the factor of re-use
  2. Simplicity should be over there
  3. There should be no repetition
  4. Consider the factor of modularization
  5. Consider the factor of pre-assembly and pre –fabrication
  6. Use standard design tools

Project management and procedure

  1. Project control
  2. Design approval
  3. Design verification
  4. Communication
  5. Change control

Cost and risk consideration

Consider the entire factor related to cost and risk.

Coordination of Planning and design phase

Planning and design phase are coordinated as if it is so, it can reduce the project life cycle and project cost. In planning phase as stated in task 1 is the key phase in project and design phase depends on this phase.

Without planning phase the project will not run smoothly and on the basis of planning project in charge may know that how he will design the project by consideration of all factors in planning stages.

Construction activities for the construction of house

Construction of house

Following factors we should consider during the planning of construction of house
Planning
  1. Identification of basic structural properties of building construction material
  2. Identification of hazards associated with the construction material
  3. Identify the factor of fire and effect of fire on building materials like wood, cast iron, steel, Reinforced Concrete, Gypsum wallboard, glasses, plaster and lath
  4. Identify the factor of building collapsing condition
  5. Identify the terms as Fire wall, Cantilever wall/unsupported wall, Party wall, Veneer wall, Partition wall and load bearing
  6. Building material should be fire resistance, Non-combustible and with Heavy Timber

Design of house

There are some factors that should be considered during the design of house
  1. Preparation of layout
  2. Cleaning of layout
  3. Construction method used
  4. Choice of technology used
  5. Leveling of area
  6. Removal trees
  7. Calculating the required ratio of mixtures
  8. Installing sewer lines and other utilities
  9. Pouring concrete
  10. Provision of water and electricity
  11. Provision of fresh air and sun light
  12. Provision of road to manufacturing plant
  13. Provision of road to school
  14. Provision for pet animals
  15. Provision for garden
  16. Provision for swimming pools
  17. Provision for playing park
  18. Provision for club
  19. Provision for library
  20. Provision of temple and church

Bill of quantities

We can generate bill of quantity by
  1. Calculating cost for each activity
  2. Calculating time for each activity
  3. Calculating of manpower and working time
  4. Calculating the cost of other resources
  5. Calculating of cost of luxury items

The roles and responsibilities of all parties involved in the planning and design phases for project

Roles and responsibilities of planner

  1. Objective establishment
  2. Identification of project activities
  3. Determination of Sequence of objectives
  4. Determination of duration of activities
  5. Perform schedule calculation
  6. Function of Revise and Adjust
  7. Monitoring & controlling
  8. Identification of Special requirement
  9. Identification of Safety
  10. Identification of Spare plan
  11. Identification of Availabilities of utilities

Roles and responsibilities of design professional

  1. Preparation of drawings and specifications
  2. Preparation of check list
  3. Secure DSA approval of drawing and specification
  4. Trained the working professional about the objective of project
  5. Submit the contract copy
  6. Submit the inspector qualification and experience copy
  7. Observe the construction activities during the construction
  8. Identification of any sudden changes

The roles and responsibilities of all parties involved in the production phases for project

Roles and responsibilities of Project inspector
Rolls of project inspector is to investigate all activity and specification and standard operating procedure

Roles and responsibilities of Construction manager

  1. Construction manager will co-ordinate with work men and contractor to supervise the project work so that project will run smoothly and if there will be any obstruction, he will clarify and find the solution, if he is not able to do he will inform to project in charge.
  2. Construction manager will arrange the material from concerned resources.
  3. He will coordinate with various departments such as mechanical, electrical, planning department, designing department & quality control.
  4. He will make a report of daily activities to compare with planned activity.

Roles and responsibilities of Contractor

  1. Contractor will supervise and manage their worker
  2. Contractor will follow the assembly procedure and design procedure as given by design team.

The corporate and personal responsibilities of all parties involved in construction for projects

Corporate responsibilities

  1. To take care of health and safety of all man and material involved.
  2. To arrange training time to time
  3. To arrange seminar
  4. To arrange facilities of entertainment
  5. To arrange the food and logistic

Personal responsibilities

  1. To use all personal protective equipment
  2. To follow the guidelines given by safety manager
  3. To complete the task with safety
  4. To inform the superior of any uncertainties
So, I hope we have understood each phases and responsibilities in details

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